Job Search Skills

What is an Employment Network (EN)

An EN is an organization or group of organizations that has been deemed qualified to provide or coordinate the provision of vocational rehabilitation and other types of employment-related services and supports to assist Social Security beneficiaries with disabilities to enter, maintain and advance in employment.

Organizations must apply to become ENs and specify the geographic area where they will provide services (county, multi-county, statewide, multi-state, or national). Once approved by Social Security, an organization must sign a Blanket Purchase Agreement (BPA) before it can operate as an EN. ENs can be for-profit and non-profit organizations and service providers, state and local government agencies, or a group of providers working together as a single EN.

State Workforce agencies, Workforce Investment Boards, and American Job Centers (formerly called One-Stop Career Centers) automatically qualify to become ENs, as do American Indian Tribal Projects funded under Section 121 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended. State Vocational Rehabilitation agencies may participate as an EN or under the traditional cost reimbursement system on a case-by-case basis.

What is On-the-job Training?

Training by an employer that is provided to a paid participant while

  1. Engaged in productive work in a job that:
  2. Provides knowledge or skills essential to the full and adequate performance of job;
  3. Provides reimbursement to the employer of up to 50 percent of the wage rate of the participant, for the extraordinary costs of providing the training and the additional supervision related to the training;
  4. Is limited in duration as appropriate to the occupation for which the participant is being trained; taking into account the content of the training, the prior work experience of the participant, and the service strategy of the participant, as appropriate.

What is an Objective Assessment?

Objective (comprehensive) assessment is a client-centered diagnostic approach to evaluating the needs of a participant without regard to services or training programs already available. It is an independent, comprehensive evaluation of an individual designed to identify information vital to the design of an individual service strategy or Individual Employment Plan. Objective assessment is an ongoing process and should not be viewed as a onetime event. It should be a multi-faceted approach that includes a full array of options including items such as structured interviews, paper and pencil tests, performance test, behavioral observation, interest inventories career guidance instruments, aptitude tests, and basic skill tests. As an ongoing process, it must be revisited regularly and amended, as appropriate, when additional needs are identified or goals achieved.

What Are Occupational Skills Goals?

Occupational Skills goals are measurable increase in primary occupational skill, that encompass the proficiency to perform actual tasks and technical functions required by certain occupational fields at entry, intermediate or advanced levels. Secondary occupational skills entail familiarity with and use of set-up procedures, safety measures, work-related terminology, record keeping and paperwork formats, tools, equipment and materials, and breakdown and clean-up routines.

How to Determine If A Client is A Dislocated Worker ?

An individual who:

(A). (i) has been terminated or laid off from their job, or who received a notice of termination or layoff, from their employer;* (ii)(I) is eligible for or has exhausted their unemployment payments; or (II) has been employed for a duration sufficient to demonstrate, to the appropriate entity at a one-stop center referred to in section 134(c), attachment to the workforce, but can not get unemployment compensation because of low earnings or having done work for an employer not covered under a State unemployment compensation law; and (iii) is unlikely to return to a previous industry or occupation;**

(B) (i) has been terminated or laid off, or has received a notice of termination or layoff, from employment as a result of any permanent closure of, or any substantial layoff at, a plant, facility or enterprise; (ii) is employed at a facility which the employer has made a general announcement that such facility will close within 180 days; or (iii) for purpose of eligibility to receive services other than training services described in section 134(d)(4), intensive services described in section 134(d)(3) or supportive services, is employed at a facility at which the employer has made a general announcement that such facility will close;

(C) was self-employed (including employment as a farmer, rancher, or a fisherman) but is unemployed as a result of general economic conditions in the community in which the individual resides or because of natural disasters; or

(D) is a displaced homemaker. (WIA Section 101(9)) * Separating military service members (non-retiree) and military spouses may be enrolled for services as dislocated workers if they meet the definitions set forth in TEGL 22-04 Section 4. Recently separated veterans and transitioning service members are considered to have received a notice of termination or layoff from their employer (DD-214) per part (A)(i) of this definition.

What Are Barriers to Employment?

Barriers to employment are conditions that may make employment difficult for certain individuals. Individuals with such barriers may include: single parents, displaced homemakers, youth, public assistance recipients, older workers, substance abusers, teenage parents, veterans, ethnic minorities, and those with limited English speaking ability or a criminal record or with a lack of education, work experience, credentials, transportation or child care arrangements.

Some examples of schools include:

  • Alternative high schools
  • specialty boarding schools
  • residential treatment centers for substance abuse
  • behavior modification centers
  • wilderness treatment schools
  • juvenile boot camp school

The goal of an alternative school should be to:

  1. Facilitate academic growth through career exploration and cross-curricular activities within a diverse learning community;
  2. Encourage students to attend by choice;
  3. Be responsive to unmet local needs; and
  4. Ensure the student body reflects the racial and socio-economic mix of the community.

What are Alternative Education programs?

Alternative Education program is defined as a separate program within a K-12 public school district or charter school established to serve and provide youth a choice or option whose needs are not being met in the traditional school setting.

The goal of an alternative school should be to:

Facilitate academic growth through career exploration and cross-curricular activities within a diverse learning community;
Encourage students to attend by choice;
Be responsive to unmet local needs; and
Ensure the student body reflects the racial and socio-economic mix of the community.
Some examples of schools include:

Alternative high schools
specialty boarding schools
residential treatment centers for substance abuse
behavior modification centers
wilderness treatment schools
juvenile boot camp school

What is Advanced Training/Occupational Skills Training?

This type of training applies to youth and means an organized program of study that provides specific vocational skills that lead to proficiency in performing actual tasks and technical functions required by certain occupational fields at entry, intermediate, or advanced levels. Such training should be outcome oriented and focused on a long-term goal as specified in the ISS and result in attainment of a certificate as defined this glossary.

Job Creation: What Is It?

Successful job development for people with disabilities is about meeting the specific and often unique needs of each job seeker. Job creation is a way to modify or restructure existing jobs or bring together a combination of job tasks that fill the work needs of an employer while capitalizing on the skills and strengths of workers with significant disabilities.
Although there are various approaches to creating jobs, the implementation steps and overall goals and outcomes are the same. One approach is to develop a new position (one that did not previously exist), such as a mail delivery clerk at a business where personnel used to pick up their own mail at a central location. Another strategy involves selecting certain duties from one or more existing jobs and combining them into a separate position (for instance, a worker is hired in an office to support only copying and filing needs)

Job Carving vs. Job Creation

Job creation is just as it states. A position is drawn up based upon an employer’s need. Job descriptions are created, a salary is set, and someone is hired to do the job. Job carving is based upon the same concept as job creation, but is a bit different, in that it is usually based upon a position that already exists and is vacant. Sometimes, job carving leads to job creation.

What is Job Development?

Job Development is contacting an employer directly for the purpose of obtaining employment for a specific individual, where no prior job order exists. Not all job seekers are good candidates for job development, so you must first determine the appropriateness of the job seeker. Job development may be appropriate when working with job seekers:

  • Who have outstanding or unusual training or experience;
  • Who are hard to place because few job orders are received for the kind of work they are capable of; and
  • With skills and abilities that particular employers are most likely to be interested in.

Professional Development

What is the difference between hard skills and soft skills?

Hard skills are skills where the rules stay the same regardless of which company, circumstance or people you work with. In contrast, soft skills are self management skills and people skills where the rules changes depending on the company culture and people you work with. For example, programming is a hard skill. The rules for how you can be good at creating the best code to do a function is the same regardless of where you work. Communication skills are a set of soft skills. The rules for how to be effective at communication changes and depend on your audience or the content you are communicating. You may communicate well to fellow programmers about technical details while struggle significant to communicate clearly to senior manager about your project progress and support needed.


What is a summary statement?

A summary statement is a brief description of your experience and accomplishments. It offers you a chance to highlight your strengths and talents.

What should an objective in a resume consist of?

The objective should be at the top of your resume after your personal information is listed. The objective should effectively state your employment or career goals. Take time to create a strong objectives as vague objectives aren’t great additions to a resume. Employers do look at your objective as this helps them to understand your goals.

What is a Functional Resume?

A functional resume is a resume that is not in chronological order. It is good for someone who has limited work history and/or have gaps in their work history, are re-entering the workforce, changed jobs frequently, are transitioning into new careers or if you simply do not fit the exact mold of what employer is looking for but possess the appropriate skills for the position. The advantage of a functional resume is that you get to highlight all your abilities up front that by the time the employer gets to the bottom of the resume where you would chronologically list your employment history, they’ve had a chance to really see what you can do. Functional resumes are really good because they highlight your transferable skills that might not otherwise be noticed by a recruiter or computer.

What is a Chronological Resume?

A chronological resume is the most commonly used format. It is perfect for someone who has a good work history with little to no gaps in employment. There are several components to a chronological resume. This type of resume usually contains an objective and/or a summary statement and a chronological listing of your most recent employer to your past employers detailing your duties and accomplishments. Also, included is your educational information including certificates and special skills training. Typically, this listing would span up to 10 years but can be longer if you choose and feel it is necessary.

What are the different types of resumes?

There are three types of resumes. Chronological, Functional and Hybrid.

What is the purpose of a resume?

The purpose of a resume is to encourage an employer to be interested enough in you to invite you in for an interview. Because people have different experiences and backgrounds it is important to know which type of resume best suit your work history.

Individuals with Disabilities

Community Based Organization (CBO) Defined

A non-profit organization that originates and is developed locally to serve the needs of the community in which it is based. Services provided are varied and can include health, education, housing, and employment training. A Community Based Organizations is representative of a community or a significant segment of a community and that has demonstrated expertise and effectiveness in the field of workforce investment.

What Are Basic Skills Deficient and Deficient in Basic Literacy Skills Basic Skills Deficient?

An individual has English reading, writing, or computing skill at or below the eighth grade level on a generally accepted standardized test or a comparable score on a criterion-referenced test. (WIA Section 101 (4)) Deficient in Basic Literacy Skills: Is an individual who, at a minimum, meets the definition of Basic Skills Deficient; or is unable to compute or solve problems, read write, or speak English at a level necessary to function on the job, in the individual’s family, or in society. (20 CFR Part 664.205(a))

What is the Regional Center?

Regional centers are nonprofit private corporations that contract with the Department of Developmental Services to provide or coordinate services and supports for individuals with developmental disabilities. They have offices throughout California to provide a local resource to help find and access the many services available to individuals and their families.

Ticket to Work

What is the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) of 1998?

An Act of the United States Congress to establish programs to prepare youth and unskilled adults for entry into the labor force and to give job training to those economically disadvantaged individuals and other individuals who face serious barriers to employment and who are in need of such training to obtain prospective employment. Workforce Investment titles include: Title I Adult, Youth and Dislocated Worker services IB – Adult, Dislocated Workers, Youth IC – Job Corps age 22 08/20/13 ID – Native American, Migrant and Seasonal Farmworker, Veterans, etc. Title II Adult Basic Education Title III Wagner-Peyser (Employment Service) Title IV Vocational Rehabilitation Title V General Provisions

The Definition Of Supplemental Security Income (SSI)

A type of public assistance authorized pursuant to a state plan approved under the Social Security Act, Title XVI. Supplemental Security Income pays benefits to disabled adults and children who have limited income and resources. It is also paid to people 65 and older without disabilities who meet the financial limits. SSI is considered cash assistance and individuals receiving SSI are automatically income eligible the same as individuals receiving TANF or SNAP. A WIA applicant on SSI is a family of one.

How is Self-Sufficiency defined?

The ability to earn enough money to support oneself. Self-Sufficiency for adults is defined as:

  1. Meeting basic expenses (such as housing, transportation, food, clothing, health care, savings, and taxes) without subsidies;
  2. Independence from federal, state and local government assistance, with access to affordable health care;
  3. A wage of at least $9.90 per hour ($20,590 annually for an individual based on the northwest policy center “living wage” study and adjusted for inflation which will occur annually). The wage per hour is based on a single full-time job of 32-40 hours per week.

What Are Rehabilitation services?

Services provided by a licensed or authorized professional in accordance with an individualized plan of care intended to improve or maintain a client’s quality of life and optimal capacity for self-care. Services include physical and occupational therapy, speech pathology, and low-vision training.

What is Act?

Act – Means the Workforce Investment Act of 1998(WIA) or Public Law (PL) 105-220. A new, customer focused comprehensive workforce system (One-Stop System) to help Americans access the tools they need to manage their careers through information and high quality services, and to help U. S. companies find skilled workers.

What is the ADA?

Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) – A federal law providing for comprehensive civil rights protection to individuals with disabilities in areas of employment, public accommodations, state and local government services and telecommunications. (PL101-336)
Individual with a Disability 1. In general. An individual with any disability (as defined in section 3 of the Americans with Disabilities Act of 1990 (42 U.S.C. 12`02)). 2. Individuals with Disabilities. More than one individual with a disability

Working with Ticket to Work Members?

Majority of the members through the Ticket to Work program have previous work experience and capable of work either a full time or part time job. Some of the members are very experienced with Bachelors and Master degree and just need assistance in identify job leads. Other have limited soft skills and needed to revamp their interviewing skills, image, and self-salesmanship skills and those members who we identify that need more help, we offer Job Club to aide them in increasing their soft skills. Tickets to Work members are unique because they have specific guidelines in order to participating in the program. They need to meet Trial Work Level (TWL) $770.00 and Substantial Gainful Activity $1070.00 (SGA) level within a five year period.

Requirement One: Obtain employment part time or full time with a gross income of $770.00 (Trial Work Level) in a calendar month for a period of 3-24 months.
Requirement Two: After successfully completing 24 months of reaching Trial Work Level members are required to make SGA (Substantial Gainful Activity) which is $1070.00 in a calendar month for the duration of the program..
Below is a sample chart to show the wages and hours needed to work to meet Trial Work Level and identifying part time employment opportunities for the member.

Hours Part Time

Wages Hours Part Time
$9.00 24 Hours Weekly
$9.50 24 Hours Weekly
$10.00 23 Hours Weekly
$10.50 22 Hours Weekly
$11.00 21 Hours Weekly
$12.00 20 Hours Weekly
$13.00 19 Hours Weekly

What is the Ticket To Work (TTW) program?

Social Security’s Ticket to Work Program is a free and voluntary program available to people ages 18 through 64 who are blind or have a disability and who receive Social Security Disability Insurance (SSDI) or Supplemental Security Income (SSI) benefits.